Day 2 :
Moscow State University, Russia
Time : 10:00-10:40
D B Zorov has completed his PhD in 1974 from Lomonosov Moscow State University and his Doctor of Science in 1988 from Moscow University. He is the Chief of the Department of Functional Biochemistry of Biopolymers and the Chief of the Laboratory of Mitochondrial Structure and Functions in A N Belozersky Institute at Moscow State University. He has published more than 150 papers in high rank journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of Heart, Lung and Circulation. He is a Member of European Academy (Academia Europea).
Mitochondria play a key role in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including renal pathologies, especially those that occur with the participation of oxidative stress. Among these are kidney ischemia, rhabdomyolysis and pyelonephritis. Mitochondria are not only a cause but also a target of oxidative stress as a result of insufficient tissue supply of oxygen and nutrients, and a hyperinflammatory response associated with these pathologies. As a result, the mitochondria respond by enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (ROS-induced ROS release) and by activation of production of proinflammatory cytokines, whose redundancy is fatal. In the case of pyelonephritis, pathogenic factors are not only bacterial antigens that activate innate immune response through activation of toll-like receptors of leukocytes and epithelial cells, but also proinflammatory cytokines and ROS. The strategy of treatment for such pathologies is that primary targets of pharmacological action must be the mitochondrion with the final goal to retain normal mitochondrial structure and function as a mandatory requirement which can provide renal protection. In the case of ischemic renal damage, one of the most effective approaches to protect the organ is ischemic preconditioning. All protective signaling pathways converge on mitochondria, namely on GSK-3β, which gives the possibility of targeted influence on the end effector of protective signaling. Pharmacological preconditioning is just an imitation of ischemic preconditioning. In most types of protective and destructive signaling pathways, the key role is played by ROS, the maintenance of which at the optimum level is a primary goal for normal functioning of renal tissue.
Niigata University, Japan
Time : 10:40-11:20
Tadashi Yamamoto has received his PhD in 1981 from Niigata University, School of Medicine and did Post-doctoral studies in the Scripps Research Institute, CA, USA. He is the Director of the Biofluid Biomarker Center, Niigata University. He has been chairing the Human Kidney and Urine Proteome Project of Human Proteome Organization and has published more than 25 papers in reputed proteomics journals.
Currently proteomics has been introduced for analysis of pathophysiology of kidney tissues and biopsy specimens, and also discovery of urine biomarkers. Understanding pathophysiology of kidneys in physiologic or pathologic conditions is significant to select treatments for the diseases or to develop new therapies. By a laser microdissection system and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) we have established a method to analyze proteomes of both kidney glomerulus and other nephron compartments obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections. Thousands of proteins with high confidence were identified by LC-MS of each nephron compartment and they were semi-quantified by a non-labeled quantitation method, normalized spectral index. Bioinformatics tools for function and pathway analyses of the proteome data depicted characteristic functions of each nephron. By the proteomics analysis of 50 sections prepared from a single biopsy specimen also depicted interesting pathways in the glomerulus of each kidney disease. Proteomics and bioinformatics analysis of normal or disease kidney tissues provide new insights into molecular functions of nephron segments and pathologic pathways of glomerular diseases and may promote efficient personalized medicine and pathogenesis-based new drugs in the near future.