Metabolic, Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders

Electrolytes play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis within the body. Some minerals—especially the macro minerals (minerals the body needs in relatively large amounts)—are important as electrolytes. The kidneys help maintain electrolyte concentrations by filtering electrolytes from blood, returning some electrolytes to the blood, and excreting any excess into the urine. Thus, the kidneys help maintain a balance between daily consumption and excretion. The physician should first explore all treatable causes of renal failure, example: Dehydration, Obstruction, Infection, Heart failure, Potassium depletion, and others. Approximately 90 percent of cases of end-stage renal disease are attributable to diabetes mellitus, glomerulonephritis, or hypertension. Kidney failure results in Fluid and Electrolyte imbalances, the build up of nitrogenous wastes, and reduced ability to produce renal hormones. The two treatment options are transplantation or dialysis. Kidney stones can also form from uric acid, which is a breakdown product of protein, or from struvite (ammoniomagnesium phosphate) or cystine.

 The prevalence of kidney stones is three times higher in men than women, and is higher among Caucasians than Asians or African Americans, for reasons that are not clear. They are especially likely to strike between the ages of 40 and 60.Encourage patients to avoid animal products. Their proteins and sodium content increase the risk of stones.

  • Metabolic bone disease
  • Salt wasting
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Acidosis
  • Inorganic ions (Na, K, Cl) and epithelial biology
  • Renal fibrosis

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